The Drake Hotel

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAAt the beginning of the 18th century, almost all of Sullivan County was secured by patents, including Hardenberg Patent (or Great Patent) (Quinlan 1873:9-11). Over time, these land holdings were sub-divided into Great Lots, which were in turn divided into smaller lots that were then sold off, but despite the land sales, the area remained only sparsely settled until after the Revolutionary War (Quinlan 1873: 11, 111-114). One of the impediments to settlement was the hostilities between the European settlers and the Native American population, who were at times under the sway of the French, and later the British.

Following the Revolutionary War, the construction of transportation networks, including the Newburgh-Cochecton Turnpike, which linked Newburgh and the Delaware River at Cochecton, encouraged movement into the area. The Newburgh-Cochecton Turnpike, chartered in 1801, was among the first in the state (Wakefield 1970:2-3). It was the brainchild of a group of Newburgh businessmen, who wished to see an increase in the flow of goods between their riverfront stores and the interior. Shortly after the establishment of the turnpike, the increase in population led to the formation of Sullivan County from Ulster County. Settlement focused on areas such as Bloomingburg, Monticello and Liberty, with smaller villages, such as Wurtsboro, growing up along the Delaware & Hudson Canal (referred to as the D & H Canal), which was chartered in 1823. In addition to the Newburgh-Cochecton Turnpike and the D & H Canal, which brought people and business to the area, there was also a lead mine and smelting facilities, as well as tanneries, a mainstay of the Catskill Mountain economy in the early years of the 19th century. The exploitation of the hemlock, used to tan the leather, led to a collapse of the tanning industry, but at the time of the Civil War it was boasted that over 80 percent of the boots and leather goods used by the Union Army were supplied from the tanneries of Sullivan County (Wakefield 1970:6). The construction of the railroads through Sullivan County, which began along the Delaware River in the 1840s and elsewhere in the 1860s and 1870s, doomed the turnpikes and canals. The railroad provided easy access to markets for many of the farming communities in the county, but it also provided the route by which tourists came to Sullivan County, generating the summer vacation industry that was the mainstay of the county’s economy for many years. The first of the railroads to reach central Sullivan County was the New York & Oswego Midland Railroad, which, upon its bankruptcy in 1880, was acquired by the New York, Ontario & Western Railroad, referred to locally as the “Old & Weary.”

In the western portion of Forestburgh, there is an area that was historically known as Drakestown. Drakestown was settled by Zephaniah, Joseph, Adam, Nathan and Luther Drake, who had originally settled in coastal New Jersey. Joseph came in 1793 or 1794, with the others arriving during the next three years. Ira Drake, whose house was immediately west of the project area on the east bank of the Mongaup River, was a prominent member of his community, acting as a Justice of the Peace between 1837 and 1844. According to the local histories, the Drakes were hardy, industrious, worthy men who were respected at home and abroad. A. Drake owned a hotel to the east of the Mongaup River. To the north of the Drake hotel was a structure shown as belonging to the heirs of S. Drake, the wife of Zephaniah Drake. Child’s Directory lists Alonzo C. Drake as a resident of the Town of Forestburgh. Child’s Directory does not include a listing for the Drake Hotel, so it is likely that the hotel was established sometime between 1873 and 1875.

The Drake hotel remained standing until after 1911. The creation of the Rio Reservoir changed the patterns of traffic in the western portion of Forestburgh and it is likely that the Drake family went out of business. The changing of the economic environment, two wars and the progress of time has erased nearly all evidence of the Drake family hotel. Currently all that remains is a wooden placard nailed to a tree and stone ruins that identify the location of the hotel.

Advertisements

Woodbourne: Off the Beaten Path

Woodbourne, New YorkAt the beginning of the 18th century, almost all of Sullivan County was secured by patents, including Hardenberg Patent (or Great Patent). Over time these land holdings were sub-divided into Great Lots, which were in turn divided into smaller lots that were then sold off, but despite the land sales the area remained only sparsely settled until after the Revolutionary War .). One of the impediments to settlement was the hostilities between the European settlers and the Native American population, who were at times under the sway of the French, and later the British.

Following the Revolutionary War, the construction of transportation networks, including the Newburgh-Cochecton Turnpike, which linked Newburgh and the Delaware River at Cochecton, encouraged movement into the area.  The Newburgh-Cochecton Turnpike, chartered in 1801, was among the first in the state. It was the brain child of a group of Newburgh businessmen, who wished to see an increase in the flow of goods between their riverfront stores and the interior.  Shortly after the establishment of the turnpike, the increase in population by 1809 led to the formation of Sullivan County from Ulster.

The Town of Fallsburg was created from portions of the already existing towns of Thompson and Neversink, and derived its name from the falls located on the Neversink River at Fallsburg.  Woodbourne, which was initially known as Neversink Falls, has been settled in mid 18th century, but, like many communities in Sullivan County, was abandoned during the American Revolution. Following the war the area in which Woodbourne is located was the subject of a dispute between the heirs of Thomas Beekman and the Hardenburghs that led to the forcible removal of some of the settlers, though others relocated voluntarily. According to Quinlan, there was a “particularly violent confrontation over the ownership of a farm and mill at Woodbourne, and the property was later destroyed by fire.  The opening of the Delaware and Hudson canal in 1828, which permitted coal to be shipped from Pennsylvania to the Hudson River, brought significant changes to the area, and Woodbourne, which had been primarily a farming community, became one of the centers for the tanning industry in Sullivan County. Tanneries were a mainstay of the Catskill Mountain economy in the early years of the 19th century, but the exploitation of the hemlock, used to tan the leather, led to a collapse of the tanning industry in the 1870s. However, at the time of the Civil War it was boasted that over 80-percent of the boots and leather goods used by the Union Army were supplied from tanneries of Sullivan County . Gabriel W. Ludlum, a lawyer and resident of Hasbrouck, which was located north of Woodbourne, moved to Woodbourne in 1830 to operate a tannery in the hamlet. He was one of the chief proponents of the turnpike between New Paltz and Woodbounre, which began operations in 1838, and another turnpike between Ellenville and Woodbourne; the New Paltz to Woodbourne turnpike was later extended to Liberty.  Ludlam later left the area, but his place was taken by Austin Strong.  One of the reasons for the decline in tanning industry in Woodbourne was that the supply of hemlock on which the industry depended had been depleted, and when the tannery was destroyed by fire in the 1870’s it was not rebuilt.

The construction of the railroads through Sullivan County, which began along the Delaware River in the 1840s, and elsewhere in the 1860s and 1870s, doomed the turnpikes and canals. The railroad provided easy access to market for many of the farm products of the county, but it also provided the route by which tourists came to SullivanCounty, producing the summer vacation industry that has been the mainstay of the county’s economy for many years. The first of the railroads to reach central Sullivan County was the New York & Oswego Midland Railroad, which, upon its bankruptcy in 1880, was acquired by the New York, Ontario & Western Railroad, referred to locally as the “Old & Weary”. By the 1870’s several railroads had been constructed connecting Monticello with areas to the south and north. The railroads promoted their service, which provided access to the hotels and mountain houses located throughout the Catskills. At that time the promotional efforts were focused on wealthy, predominantly Protestant family from New York City, who could afford to spend weeks in places like Woodbourne, but over time less affluent families joined the summer exodus.  Similar scenes were played out in other areas in the mountains.  Underlying the advertising campaign was the fear of disease in urban areas that was thought to spread rapidly during the hot summer months. Particularly alarming was the epidemic of tuberculosis that ravaged New York at the end of the 19th century.

In the early 20th century Woodbourne became the center of an eastern European Jewish farming community. Many of these families engaged in dairy farming, but poultry farming was also an important industry in the area. To supplement their income, many families began to take in boarders. As reported in the local histories, at first these families engaged in both farming and tourism, but gradually many of these families gave up agriculture all together. Woodbourne lacked a railroad station, but, despite this, there were many resorts in the area that received vacationers who arrived at South Fallsburg and traveled to Woodbourne first by horse drawn vehicles and later by car. By the early 20th century there were twenty-six resorts in Woodbourne and nearby Hasbrouck (Wakefield 1970:147). By the 1930s there were still at least fourteen hotels in operation. Despite the construction of a large state prison at Woodbourne, the resort industry remained vibrant into the 1950s .

Following the Second World War, Jewish families from New York City began to vacation in other areas of the county and the world. The more secular Jews who had been the mainstay of the resort community were replaced by the ultra Orthodox and Hasidic Jews, who began to patronize the local bungalow colonies. Today the business center of Woodbourne is almost entirely owned by Hasidic Jews. The businessmen operate their businesses between July 4th and Labor Day, then close until the next season. A new phenomenon is the purchase of large hotel properties, most of which have been closed for years, these properties are being turned into ultra Orthodox and Hasidic Jewish communities, hotel and conference centers.

Wakefield, Manville B. 1970       To the Mountain by Rail.  Wakefield Press: Grahamsville, NY.

Quinlan, James Eldridge 1873       History of Sullivan County.  Beebe & Morgan, Liberty, NY.

Ingraham Farmstead

A number of years ago, I researched a particular piece of property, that contained the remnants of an old farmstead. Cartographic research indicates that the farmstead was owned by Cornelius Ingram [sic] (Ingraham) from 1850 until the third quarter of the 19th century, when it passed, by either sale or inheritance, to D. VanVoorhies [VanVoorhies]. The house appears on both the 1903 and the 1943 USGS topographical maps of the area, indicating that it was still standing and, was presumably occupied through the first part of the 20th century.

At the time, I was conducting the research the foundations of the house and a second structure, subsequently identified as a carriage house, were all that was left of the farm complex. There was scant evidence of the dwelling, consisting of some siding and a few bricks from the chimney, which was located on the east side of the field stone house foundation. The front entrance to the house was identified by the heavy stone sill that spanned an opening in the foundation. An examination of the foundation, constructed of dry-laid fieldstone, indicates that there was a cellar under a portion of the house that may have been accessed from the exterior. It is likely that the cellar hole extended under only a portion of the house, which, based on the observation of a number of broken stoneware storage vessels and a stoneware jug on the north side of the house foundation, may have extended northward to a field stone retaining wall that is interpreted as part of a building foundation. The farm road that provides access to the Ingraham farmstead is lined with stonewalls. The location of the house, in what appears to be the interior of the farm, is of interest, since early houses are typically located adjacent to highways for easy access to neighbors and settled areas.

In the 1850 census, taken the same year that the map was published, Cornelius Ingraham is listed as being 48 or 49 years of age, suggesting that he was born between 1801 and 1802. He is listed as a farmer by occupation. He resided with two males, who are listed as his sons, James W. and Barny (Barry) D. Neither of his daughters are listed in the 1850 census; it is possible that the older could have married and moved from home, but it is unlikely that the younger one had done so, being at the most 15 years of age in 1850. It is possible that one or both of the girls had died, along with his wife, who is also not included in the census.  There is no valuation indicated for the Cornelius Ingraham farm, which may suggest that he occupied the farm as a tenant to his father, but it may also be an oversight.  The farm owned by John Ingraham was valued at $6,000.00.

In 1858, the next year for which a map is available, a J. Ingram is shown living northwest of the C. Ingram farmstead. The dwelling is situated in the interior of the site a circumstance that is unusual in the early and mid-19th century. It is assumed that this is the residence of the John Ingraham, who is listed directly below Cornelius Ingraham in the 1840 Federal census. While it is possible that there could be some peculiarity concerning the order in which the families were visited, the fact that these two families are listed one after the other suggests that they were near neighbors. John Ingraham is listed in the 1840 census as being between the ages of 50-60, making him old enough to be Cornelius’ father. Another male, between the ages of 20 and 30, resided in his household, along with three females aged: 50-60 (John’s wife Sarah), 20-30 and 15-20 (his daughters).  Although the second male is not identified in this census, research in subsequent years indicates that this is his son John C. Ingraham. Other near neighbors to Cornelius Ingraham, according to the map research, included D. VanVoohies, to the southeast, T. Drake to the northeast, and W. Pauling, on the farm occupied by W. Armstrong in 1850, to the southwest.

Although a farm owned by Cornelius Ingraham is shown on the 1867 map, he does not appear in the 1860 census. The reason for this is unknown, but among the possibilities, is that the family was away from home at the time that the census was taken. His father, John Ingraham, and his mother, Sarah, along with Sarah Gidley and Sarah E. Gidley are listed in that census, where Sarah E. Gidley, who at 17 was identified as a school teacher.  John Ingraham’s farm is valued at $3,000, significantly less than in 1850.  His personal estate was valued at $650.00.  As noted, it is possible that the land had become devalued for some reason, but more probable that this reflects a reduction in the size of John Ingraham’s farm through division or, less likely, sale.  John Ingraham died in 1865, several months after the death of this wife, and on the 1867, according to the F. W. Beers’ map of Dutchess County, the farm was owned by Daniel S. Ingraham, who was his grandson. In the 1860 census, Daniel, who was 14 years of age, lived with his family, which was headed by John C. Ingraham, a son of John Ingraham.

In 1870, Cornelius Ingraham again appears in the census records, where he is listed as a farmer, who was 63 years of age. His wife, Martha, then aged 41 years, is listed as keeping house. The difference in age, along with the presence of his sons and the absence of a woman identified as a wife in the household in 1850, strongly suggests that Martha was his second wife.  Cornelius Ingraham’s farm is valued at $3,500.00 and his personal estate at $700.00.  We do not have the average farm value for   in 1870, but assuming that a deflation in land values had not taken place, the value of the farm suggests that Cornelius Ingraham’s family could have been suffering from economic pressures. Daniel S. Ingraham, who was then 24, occupied the J. Ingraham farm northwest of the Cornelius Ingraham farmstead, with his wife, Emma, who was 23 years of age.  His farm was valued at $4,500.00 and his personal estate at $1,200.00, more than his uncle. Cornelius Ingraham must have died between the time the census was taken and 1876, when the farm was owned or at least occupied by D. VanVoorhies. The farm previously owned by Daniel S. Ingraham was now owned by John Young. The earlier census data indicated that D. VanVoorhies owned the farm southeast of C. Ingraham, and while it is possible that D. VanVoorhies purchased the Ingraham farm, it is possible that a member of the VanVoorhies family had married a daughter of C. Ingraham, who inherited her father’s farm. John Young, the occupant of the Daniel S. Ingraham farm, was listed in the 1850 census as a shoemaker along with his wife, Mary, daughters Hannah and Sarah, who were 8 and 3 respectively, and a son, Isaac, aged 15. It is not possible to confirm from the census data available that John’s wife, Mary, was a member of the Ingraham family, but it is possible, given that they were living on property that had belonged to the Ingraham family.  Deed research would help to clarify the question, but, speaking more generally, rural families would tend to divide and subdivide their holding to provide land for their children.  In the case of the Dutch families, the estate was equally divided between the male and female children, while in English families primogeniture was generally the rule, though exceptions can be found. It may be that the Ingraham family was providing for its daughters and their husbands, as well as for their sons.  The fact that the Daniel S. Ingraham farm had changed hands is supported by the fact that in the 1880 Federal census Daniel S. Ingraham is listed as a storekeeper.

Cornelius Ingraham’s wife, Martha, is not listed in the 1880 census, but because of her age, it can be assumed that she was still living, so perhaps she had moved away or remarried. In 1880, John C. Ingraham still owned the farm in Pleasant Valley.  John Young, occupant of the Daniel S. Ingraham farm, is listed in the 1880 census as 65 years of age, a farmer living with his wife Mary. There is no indication of the value of the farm at the time.

Historic topographical maps indicate that the Ingraham/VanVoorhies farmstead stood until at least 1943.  Unfortunately, these maps do not indicate the names of the owners at this time. Cemetery records indicate the Daniel VanVoorhies died in 1877, and his wife three years later in 1880 after the census was taken. At present, we do not know the owner of the farm following the death of Daniel and his wife, but, given the size of the VanVoorhies family, it is not unlikely that the farm remained in the family. The cemetery records do not list John Young or his wife Mary; however, in 1850 they were in their mid thirties, so by 1900 they would most likely have been deceased. They are listed in the 1850 census as having daughters, but by the 1860’s these children were no longer at home, and it is possible they had married, as they are not in the later census records. While it is possible that after John Young died the house passed to one of his son-in-laws, this cannot be confirmed based on the available data.